Camera Resolution is measured in pixels (Picture Elements). The higher the number of pixels, the higher the resolution of which the camera is capable. As a rough guide for a camera with a 4:3 aspect ratio, dividing the total number of pixels by 1000 will give the number of lines of horizontal resolution. e.g. a camera with 350,000 pixels would give 350 lines of horizontal resolution. The more lines of horizontal resolution, the better the image.
Realistically you should aim for a minimum of 350 lines of resolution. However, if you can source a camera with 400 or 500 lines at a reasonable price, this will give a much better image.
Vertical resolution is seldom quoted for cameras, as it is a function of the signal standard. The two main TV signal standards are PAL and NTSC. PAL is the system commonly used in Europe, whilst NTSC is the system used in North and Central America. Many cameras will work with both systems. Most modern monitors and TV's will work with both systems. Ensure the combination of monitor and camera you use are compatible with each other.
It is generally better to choose a monitor which has a better resolution than that of the camera, to optimise the resolution of the system.
For a more in-depth look at TV Camera Resolution, CLICK HERE.
The key component in this type of camera is the sensor. The sensor will either be a CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) type, or a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) type. CMOS cameras are cheaper. CCD cameras give clearer higher resolution images. For this reason, unless you are on a tight budget, go for a CCD camera. The sensor has hundreds of thousands of individual pixels in a rectangular grid on a tiny chip measuring only 1/2", 1/3", or 1/4". Each pixel reacts to light by storing a small electric charge. The pixel signals are transfered to the camera's video processing circuitry 60 times per second (NTSC) or 50 times per second (PAL). Sensor size is an important factor in determining image quality. The larger the size, the higher the quality. Whilst the 1/3" sensor is the most common one for mainstream video applications, most of the cameras currently available which are suitable for rear view use, have 1/4" sensors.
To produce a good image, a video camera requires an adequate light level. This can be either natural or artificial light. Black & White cameras work with any type of light source, but color cameras need a source of illumination which has all the colours in the visible spectrum, to render a colour image. Light level is measured in LUX
A good Black & White camera will give an acceptable image in full moonlight. If it is sensitive enough to give an image in moonlight, a colour camera will yield a Black & White image, unless there is additional artificial light.